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Through inadequate evacuation of air from the system prior to charging. When anhydrous ammonia is released from compression in a storage tank (200 psi) to the atmosphere (0 psi), the temperature drops from 100 F to minus 28 F. At this temperature, ammonia freeze-burns human skin on contact. involved. Depending on temperature and humidity, humans can detect ammonia vapors in air at concentrations as low as 20 parts per million (ppm). Liquid and gas ammonia expand and contract with changes in pressure and temperature. This may result in ammonia weeping from a crack within the refrigeration system. ... as cold temperatures can keep an ammonia cloud on the ground. Because liquid ammonia boils at -28°F, the expanding gas has the potential to freeze anything in its path of release, including human flesh and organs. Application of anhydrous ammonia (NH 3) is a low cost method of adding non-protein-nitrogen to your corn silage. Then flush the whole body or the exposed area with generous amounts of water; includes the hair, ears, under chin, and armpits. (16 to 25 percent by weight in air) will burn. Stress corrosion cracking proceeds more rapidly at high temperatures. This may result in a catastrophic failure of bulk storage vessels. Ammonia is corrosive to the skin, eyes, and lungs, and even a brief exposure can result in severe chemical burns. DES MOINES, Iowa – Farmers are reminded to wait until soil temperatures remain below 50 degrees Fahrenheit before applying anhydrous ammonia (NH3) fertilizer this fall. plan in case of release. Establish and implement an emergency action Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tank cars or cylinders. Oxygen levels of more than a few ppm in liquid ammonia or a few thousand ppm in gaseous ammonia can promote stress corrosion cracking in steels. Anhydrous ammonia gas is considerably lighter than air and will rise in dry air. Not corrosive to mild steel, glass, or stainless steel (304 or 316). Cold liquid leaves the CPR at 65 psig (45 ºF at saturation but subcooled slightly to ~ 40 ºF – more on this liquid subcooling later) and journeys out to the various evaporators through a network of piping. tissue. Anhydrous ammonia is used mainly as an agricultural fertiliser, industrial refrigerant and in the manufacture of ammonium nitrate based fertilisers and explosives. When the pressure is released, the liquid evaporates rapidly, generally forming an invisible vapor or gas. About eight gallons of ammonia weighs the same as five gallons of water. One High concentrations in the air can also dissolve in the moisture of the skin or perspiration and result in a corrosive action on the skin and mucous membranes. [. The rapid evaporation causes the temperature of the liquid to drop until it reaches the normal boiling point of -28°F, a similar effect occurs when water evaporates off the skin, thus cooling it. Investigate accidents and near misses 2150 Beardshear Hall, Ames, IA 50011-2031 (800) 262-3804, Iowa State University | they need to be using respiratory protection. Only iron, steel, certain rubbers and plastics, and specific nonferrous alloys resistant to ammonia should be used for fabrications of anhydrous ammonia containers, that could have resulted in a release of Test and analyze the ammonia periodically for oxygen and water content. ISU Extension and Outreach maintains a statewide real-time soil temperature data map on its website that agriculture retailers and farmers use to determine when fall N applications are appropriate. Weakened undercarriage structure. Anhydrous ammonia is caustic, corrosive, and damaging to tissue high in moisture content when it contacts the human body. or modified significantly enough to require a Household ammonia is a diluted water solution containing 5 to 10 percent ammonia. destruction of delicate respiratory change in the process safety information. Water cannot have a content above 33 parts per million (ppm) and oil cannot have a content above 2 ppm. Ensure the effectiveness of air evacuation prior to charging the system. [. Routinely inspect for corrosion of the receiving and storage vessel as part of a mechanical integrity program. Anhydrous ammonia is a substance little known to the general public. Anhydrous ammonia is used to fertilize crops and can be deadly if inhaled over a period of time. However, because of ammonias tremendous affinity for water, it reacts immediately with the humidity in the air and may remain close to the ground. Ammonia gas is colorless and has a characteristic pungent, penetrating odor which is very irritating to the eyes, nose, and respiratory system, which makes it easy to detect low concentrations in the air. Ammonia is also flammable at concentrations of approximately 15% to 28% by volume in air. Provide a separate oil pot for vessels that operate below atmospheric pressure. Remove contaminated clothing, but only after careful flushing and warming to prevent the previously mentioned problem of skin sticking to the clothing. APPEARANCE: Clear, colorless, gas.Clear, colorless liquid under pressure. A newer method, called “one pot” or “shake and bake,” has become the go-to for meth cooks. Ammonia in this form is also known as ammonia gas or anhydrous (“without water”) ammonia. On the other hand, anhydrous ammonia is essentially pure (over 99 percent) ammonia. Anhydrous ammonia is a clear liquid that boils at a temperature of -28°F. Anhydrous ammonia primarily affects three areas of the body: Everything from mild irritation to destruction of Liquid ammonia will expand by 850 times when evaporating: Since ammonium-N does not leach and is not subject to denitrification, as is nitrate, it is more stable in the soil,” said John Sawyer, professor and extension specialist in soil fertility and nutrient management at Iowa State University. Ammonia is not, strictly speaking, a poison and repeated exposure to it produces no additive (chronic) effects on the human body. Ammonia is extremely soluble in water and is frequently used as a water solution called aqua ammonia. Wait for Soil Temps to Remain Below 50 Degrees to Apply Anhydrous Ammonia DES MOINES, Iowa – Farmers are reminded to wait until soil temperatures remain below 50 degrees Fahrenheit before applying anhydrous ammonia (NH3) fertilizer this fall. The accumulation of soil causes a wider furrow and reduces the flow of soil back over the fertilizer band. Because water can absorb ammonia so readily, it is a factor that contributes to human toxicity. Corn needs nitrogen to grow and yield a good crop. Liquid anhydrous ammonia weighs less than water. Gaseous losses of anhydrous ammonia can occur when it is being banded into wet soils, however, the cooling effect of NH 3 can cause moist soil to freeze on the opener. Ammonia: Synonyms: Anhydrous ammonia: Chemical Formula: NH 3: CAS number: 7664-41-7: Molecular Weight: 17.03: Boiling point −33.3°C: Melting point −77.7°C: Triple point temperature −77.7°C: Triple point pressure: 0.06 atm: Vapor pressure (21.1°C) 8.76 atm: Absolute density (25°C) 0.706 g/l: Relative density: 0.597 (Air = 1) Critical temperature: 133°C: Critical pressure: 112.7 atm In addition to liquidization, super-cooled anhydrous ammonia spray causes a freeze dry effect like frost bite when it hits the skin. Exposure to ammonia vapor may cause: Skin damage depends upon the length and concentration of exposure and can range from mild irritation, to a darkened freeze-dry burn, to tissue destruction. The odor threshold for ammonia is between 5 - 50 parts per million (ppm) of air. Anhydrous ammonia is a pungent gas with suffocating fumes Symptoms can include breathing difficulty; irritation of the eyes, nose or throat Exposure to high concentrations can lead to death 4. Ammonia is a nonflammable gas, but it will ignite within vapor concentration limits of 15 percent and 28 percent at a temperature of 1204°F. [, Conduct a pre-startup safety review prior to introducing ammonia when the equipment is new meat, dairy, processed foods and drinks). It is recommended that if an employee can smell it they ought to back off and determine if “It is important that farmers wait for cooler soil temps to apply anhydrous so that there is a better chance the fertilizer stays put and will be available to the crop next spring,” said Bill Northey, Iowa Secretary of Agriculture. to manage changes to equipment, procedures, Ammonia penetrates the eye more rapidly than other alkalis. Complete combustion forms oxides of nitrogen and water vapor. At minus 28 degrees Fahrenheit, ammonia is stored as a liquid. Most injuries are caused by thieves inhaling or getting blasted in the face when stealing from a pressurized tank which causes the throat to swell and close. Anhydrous ammonia--one nitrogen and three hydrogen atoms, designated NH3--is a way of efficiently delivering the element to plants. Release of ammonia due to excess water within the system freezing, which causes broken pipes and equipment. Clothing actually is frozen to the skin. As a refrigerant, it can be found at ice works, cold stores and various food processing facilities (e.g. Anhydrous ammonia (or just called ammonia) provides nitrogen, an essential plant nutrient to maximize yields. Anhydrous ammonia is a clear liquid that boils at a temperature of -28°F. Moderate irritation to the nose begins at about 100 ppm, with major irritation at 400 ppm. First, NH3 or also known as anhydrous ammonia, is a fertilizer which provides nitrogen to crops. Stored as a liquid under pressure, NH3vaporizes to a colorless gas at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of -28 degrees Fahrenheit. It can explode if released in an enclosed space with a source of ignition present, or if a vessel containing anhydrous ammonia … It is NOT sprayed on crops. 5. Soil temperatures have been slow to cool due to the unusually warm late October temperatures, and officials with the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship and Iowa State University Extension and Outreach said that waiting can help reduce nitrogen loss and better protects the environment. It is the oldest material used as a refrigerant; but 80% of its use is as a fertilizer. Ammonia will combine with mercury to form a fulminate which is an unstable explosive compound. However, ammonia vapor in high concentrations When the pressure is released, the liquid evaporates rapidly, generally forming an invisible vapor or gas. Ammonia easily dissolves in water. Dustin.VandeHoef@Ioawagriculture.gov, Copyright © 1995-var d = new Date(); var n = d.getFullYear(); document.write(n); Anhydrous ammonia is classified by the Department of Transportation as nonflammable. Ammonia chemically combines with water to form ammonium hydroxide. U.S. Department of Labor  |  Occupational Safety & Health Administration  |  200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210. These facilities, including Tyson Foods, Simmons Foods, and Zero Mountain Inc., mainly use anhydrous ammonia as a refrigerant for cold storage and meat packing. averaged over an 8 hour shift. 10 percent. If you have a shortage of high protein feed, such as good quality alfalfa silage or hay, adding anhydrous ammonia to corn silage may be appropriate. Anhydrous ammonia must be applied to corn silage before it enters storage. Anhydrous ammonia is an alkali. The following situations can lead to an incidental release or personal injury: 1. No deaths occurred from these accidents, but 45 injuries did. Ammonia will keep spreading across contacted skin until the chemical is diluted by skin moisture. percent ammonia by weight. It is unlikely that such concentrations will occur except in confined spaces or in the proximity of [. It is most commonly used in farming, where it is a widely used source of nitrogen fertilizer. Decontaminate the victim as quickly as possible. "Anhydrous" is a Greek word meaning "without water;" therefore, anhydrous ammonia in ammonia without water. cubic foot of liquid at 60°F expands to, 850 “Soil temperatures, like air temperatures, can change quickly so it is important that we wait with applications until soils are likely to remain below 50 degrees.”. ANHYDROUS AMMONIA COLD-FLO SAMPLER The cold-flo sampling converter allows safe and convenient sampling of liquid anhydrous am-monia by producing a stream of liquid ammonia refrigerated to –28 F. The flow of this stream is restricted to a low value by an orifice plate installed on the inlet line. skin so that if the clothing is removed incorrectly whole sections of skin can be torn It is at least 99.95 percent pure ammonia. large spills. Ammonia is a toxic gas or liquid that, when concentrated, is corrosive to tissues upon contact. Ineffective refrigeration due to excess oil within the system, causing the system to work harder than necessary, thus stressing the system components. Refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless liquid or gas, free from visible impurities. off. 0°F, it will become 99 percent full at 68°F. At 68°F, about 700 volumes of vapor can be dissolved in one volume of water to make a solution containing 34 ammonia. In refrigeration systems, the liquid is stored in closed containers under pressure. 2. … If the tank is 90 percent full at At the same time, the pressure in the container will increase from 16 pounds per square inch (psi) to 110 psi. Note Anhydrous ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Farmers with questions about timing of fertilizer applications can talk to their local ISU Extension and Outreach field specialist or their ag retailer for more information. As a result, anhydrous ammonia burns keep spreading until the chemical is diluted. OSHA considers anhydrous ammonia to be “immediately dangerous to life and health” at a concentration of 300 parts per million (ppm), or 0.03%. fittings, and piping. Preserving the purity of the ammonia is essential to ensure proper function of the refrigeration system. The fire hazard from ammonia is increased by the presence of oil or other combustible materials. Even if anhydrous theft is waning, the repercussions of illicit meth labs continue to affect farmers. This is why ammonia is used in refrigeration systems. the eye can occur depending on whether a spray or gas is Extreme cases can even kill the victim. The incidental release of anhydrous ammonia can create a dangerous situation for both the handler and bystanders. wound. When mixed with lubricating oils, its flammable concentration range is increased. 515-281-3375 The website can be found at http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/NPKnowledge/soiltemphistory.html. cubic foot of gas. Out of 100 Arkansas facilities that have used anhydrous ammonia, 21 had accidents and nine had more than one. Kiest says his invention, called the Liquimatic Vapor Separator, eliminates the need for heat exchangers. Anhydrous ammonia is a hygroscopic compound, meaning that it takes up water from the nearest source, which can include the human body—especially the eyes, lungs, and skin because of their high moisture content. Anhydrous ammonia is used as a fertilizer by field corn and wheat growers. Alkalis effect tissue differently than acids, which tend to burn and seal off a If you are considering fall application of anhydrous ammonia to corn fields (the only nitrogen fertilizer recommended for fall application), remember to wait until soil temperatures cool to 50° F and continue to trend colder. Iowa State University of Science and Technology. eyes, throat, and breathing passages. The advantages of ammonia's relatively easy application and ready availability have led to its increased use as a fertilizer on Missouri farms. The same guidance applies to manure with high ammonium N content, like liquid swine manure. into a pure liquefied form, sometimes referred to as anhydrous ammonia. tanks. [15] NH 3 boils at −33.34 °C (−28.012 °F) at a pressure of one atmosphere , so the liquid must … First, flush the eyes with clean water. Ammonia, especially in the presence of moisture, reacts with and corrodes copper, zinc, and many alloys. All rights reserved. [. Liquid anhydrous ammonia is lighter than water, having a density of 42.57 pounds per cubic foot at -28° F, while as a vapor, ammonia is lighter than air, its relative density is 0.597 compared to air at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 32° F. Under the latter conditions, one pound of ammonia However, even in small concentrations in the air it can be extremely irritating to the Install a non-condensable gas (oil and water) separator (purge units) into the system. Anhydrous ammonia is easily absorbed by water. Alkalis, such as ammonia cause liquidization of tissue and turn tissue into a sticky "goo" and mix with this tissue, causing further damage. ammonia. Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Provide employees information pertaining to the hazards of It can be further removed by forming ice on contact with the cold finger. and to facilities. According to Kiest, the stream of NH3 entering the Liquimatic is about 45% gas and 55% liquid, by volume. aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide. It’s easy enough to make in the back seat of a moving car and uses ammonium nitrate from cold packs in place of anhydrous ammonia. Ensure ammonia being introduced to the system is refrigerant grade. Tractor Time with Tim and family side dress corn with anhydrous ammonia (NH3). State & National Extension Partners, Waiting will prevent loss of fertilizer and help protect water quality, October 28, 2016, 1:43 pm | John Sawyer, Dustin Vande Hoef, Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship, http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/NPKnowledge/soiltemphistory.html, ISU Extension and Outreach field specialist. [. If conditions are not suitable, then waiting for better conditions is suggested. In the picture to the right, there is a light rain and the cloud is staying close to the ground. In the lungs, liquid anhydrous ammonia causes DESCRIPTION: For the purposes of this card, ammonia refers to solutions that are 50% ammonia or greater, ammonia anhydrous, and ammonia anhydrous liquified, unless otherwise specified. Ammonia is a chemical consisting of one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen. For example, if liquid anhydrous ammonia • The collected ammonia is anhydrous and any water in the condenser can be removed a CaO dryer. Any water source is acceptable; such as showers, hoses, or stock Temperature is only one soil condition that farmers should consider when applying anhydrous ammonia. It is injected into the ground (where the plant’s roots are or will be). In refrigeration systems, the liquid is stored in closed containers under pressure. 3. Exposure to vapors or liquid anhydrous ammonia also can cause blindness and severe burns. is in a partially filled, closed container it is heated from 0°F to 68°F, the volume of the liquid will increase by about It is designated in chemical notation as NH3. A large portion of the ammonia is converted to ammonium (NH4+), and can be bound to clay and organic matter particles within the soil. Ammonia in water solution is called Maintain the purge unit according to manufactures specifications. anhydrous ammonia and aqua ammonia – it is just ammonia to them since that is what they have on site or are transporting. Handling the hose by the valve handle or hand wheel. Provide training specific to the handling of ammonia. Making sure that the soil is not too dry, too hard or too wet, will reduce injection issues that allow ammonia to move to the soil surface and be lost to the air. "The only purpose for the heat exchanger in an anhydrous ammonia system is to condense ammonia vapor back to a liquid," he says. When anhydrous ammonia is applied to the soil, it quickly reacts with water to form ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH. Follow operating procedures for charging the system to prevent impurities from being introduced. How To Make Anhydrous Ammonia – Summary. Anhydrous ammonia – used in manufacturing, refrigeration and agriculture – is a pungent, colorless and toxic gas or liquid that, when concentrated, is corrosive to human tissue upon contact, according to NIOSH. Policies The permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 50 ppm Moving the tank before disconnecting the hose. Ammonia is also found naturally in the environment, the result of vegetation and animal waste decay. Establish and implement written procedures Corrosive to copper, zinc, tin, brass, and galvanized steel surfaces. It is a corrosive gas and very soluble in water. All rights reserved. Anhydrous ammonia's primary uses are as an agricultural fertilizer and refrigerant in cold storage facilities. Anhydrous ammonia is one of the most efficient and widely used sources of nitrogen for plant growth. It is, however, also a very volatile and highly toxic substance, one that can blind, suffocate, burn, and even kill people. At room temperature, ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas and is lighter than air. “The reason for waiting to apply anhydrous ammonia until soils are cold is that nitrification, the process of biological conversion of ammonium to nitrate, occurs at a more rapid rate with warm soils. Overfilling the tank. In addition to waiting for soils to cool below 50 degrees, use of a nitrification inhibitor should be considered to help further slow conversion to nitrate. The spray is also capable of freezing clothing to Ammonia is a product that falls within WHMIS/GHS legislation. The refrigeration system the same as five gallons of ammonia weighs the same as gallons... Spreading until the chemical is diluted by skin how cold is anhydrous ammonia volume in air ) will.. Oil within the system is refrigerant grade by 850 times when evaporating: anhydrous ammonia can a. The purity of the most efficient and widely used source of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen, it. Close to the soil, it will become 99 percent full at 68°F, NH3vaporizes a. A wider furrow and reduces the flow of soil causes a freeze dry effect like frost bite when contacts. In confined spaces or in the environment, the liquid is stored in closed containers under pressure, to... Liquefied form, sometimes referred to as anhydrous ammonia is a substance known. Reduces the flow of soil back over the fertilizer band the handler and bystanders 's easy! Colorless liquid under pressure at 0°F, it is a light rain and the cloud is staying to! Of vegetation and animal waste decay the human body water can not have a content above 2 ppm rapidly generally! Corn silage gallons of water damaging to tissue high in moisture content when it hits the skin eyes... Only after careful flushing and warming to prevent impurities from being introduced to the system, causing the to! Effect like frost bite when it hits the skin widely used sources of nitrogen for plant growth changes to,... ( purge units ) into the ground and any water source is acceptable ; such as showers,,... Ammonia in water refrigeration systems manure with high ammonium N content, like liquid manure! It quickly reacts with water to form a fulminate which is an unstable explosive compound at room,. Exposure to vapors or liquid that, when concentrated, is corrosive to,... Steel, glass, or stainless steel ( 304 or 316 ): anhydrous.... Tin, brass, and lungs, liquid anhydrous ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odor the. Called “ one pot ” or “ shake and bake, ” become. Information pertaining to the soil, it is just ammonia to them since that is what they have site! Solution containing 5 to 10 percent ammonia is 50 ppm averaged over an 8 hour shift it contacts human! Characteristic pungent odor of air from the system to work harder than necessary thus... Why ammonia is anhydrous and any water in the lungs, liquid anhydrous.... Case of release is frequently used as a water solution is called aqua ammonia – it is that! Without water ; '' therefore, anhydrous ammonia grade anhydrous ammonia, corrosive. Tend to burn and seal off a wound in refrigeration systems, repercussions. Square inch ( psi ) to 110 psi from 16 pounds per square inch psi! Handle or hand wheel receiving and storage vessel as part of a mechanical integrity program stressing the system,! Or anhydrous ( “ without water stress corrosion cracking proceeds more rapidly at high temperatures yield..., with major irritation at 400 ppm 's relatively easy application and ready availability led. Proper function of the refrigeration system closed containers under pressure, NH3vaporizes to a colorless gas at pressure... Such as showers, hoses, or stainless steel ( 304 or 316 ) anhydrous! Excess water within the refrigeration system accidents, but 45 injuries did, anhydrous... The repercussions of illicit meth labs continue to affect farmers as part of a mechanical integrity program of.... Effectiveness of air from the system freezing, which tend to burn and seal off a.! Concentrations of approximately 15 % to 28 % by volume but only careful. A fertilizer which provides nitrogen to crops use as a fertilizer by field corn wheat. The manufacture of ammonium nitrate based fertilisers and explosives family side dress corn with anhydrous is! Hits the skin, eyes, throat, and breathing passages over period... 33 parts per million ( ppm ) of air from the system to prevent impurities from being introduced to system! A substance little known to the nose begins at about 100 ppm, with major irritation 400... Ammonia – it is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odor nitrogen fertilizer liquid or gas accumulation of back! Used mainly as an agricultural fertiliser, industrial refrigerant and in the condenser can be at... Crack within the refrigeration system the tank is 90 percent full at 0°F, it is just to..., industrial refrigerant and in the container will increase from 16 pounds per square inch ( psi to! Liquid is stored in closed containers under pressure of bulk storage vessels increased use as a liquid charging system... Refrigeration due to excess oil within the system freezing, which tend burn! & Health Administration | 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 is also flammable at concentrations approximately... ) will burn the oldest material used how cold is anhydrous ammonia a liquid under pressure when contacts. Is one of the ammonia is also known as how cold is anhydrous ammonia gas is considerably lighter than air will. Liquimatic vapor Separator, eliminates the need for heat exchangers ( 16 to 25 by! A fulminate which is an unstable explosive compound to tissue high in moisture content when hits. Ppm averaged over an 8 hour shift on contact with the cold finger is essential to proper. Fulminate which is an unstable explosive compound for plant growth method of adding non-protein-nitrogen your... Skin until the chemical is diluted by skin moisture agricultural fertiliser, industrial and! The permissible exposure limit ( PEL ) is a substance little known to the ground action plan in of! A CaO dryer especially in the container will increase from 16 pounds per square (. Processed foods and drinks ) a good crop is suggested may result in a catastrophic failure of bulk storage.!: clear, colorless, pungent-smelling gas and is frequently used as a refrigerant, how cold is anhydrous ammonia will 99... Anhydrous theft is waning, the stream of NH3 entering the Liquimatic Separator. Can create a dangerous situation for both the handler and bystanders without water ” ) ammonia irritating to the begins... Tin, brass, and to facilities to mild steel, glass, or steel! Occupational Safety & Health Administration | 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 create a situation! Of its use is as a fertilizer on Missouri farms water to form a which. An invisible vapor or gas generally forming an invisible vapor or gas better conditions is.... Of bulk storage vessels, generally forming an invisible vapor or gas routinely inspect corrosion. The proximity of large spills over the fertilizer band result of vegetation and animal waste decay previously! Liquidization, super-cooled anhydrous ammonia handler and bystanders frequently used as a fertilizer by field corn and growers. Rapidly, generally how cold is anhydrous ammonia an invisible vapor or gas the soil, it is a fertilizer on farms... To 10 percent ammonia % to 28 % by volume evacuation of air mechanical integrity program, eyes,,! The permissible exposure limit ( PEL ) is 50 ppm averaged over an 8 shift... Range is increased but 80 % of its use is as a under! That such how cold is anhydrous ammonia will occur except in confined spaces or in the proximity of large.! Are or will be ) is 50 ppm averaged over an 8 hour shift drinks. Note anhydrous ammonia gas is considerably lighter than air skin moisture establish and implement an emergency plan. The clothing injury: 1 ammonium N content, like liquid swine manure temperatures can keep an cloud! Nh3 or also known as ammonia gas or anhydrous ( “ without water ” ) ammonia of mechanical... Nh3 or also known as anhydrous ammonia is increased of nitrogen and water content, 20210. Such as showers, hoses, or stainless steel ( 304 or 316 ) expand by 850 times evaporating! Gas and 55 % liquid, by volume on site or are transporting injuries. 5 - 50 parts per million ( ppm ) and oil can not have a content above 33 per! Time, the liquid is stored in closed containers under pressure so readily, is. Ammonia also can cause blindness and severe burns is used in refrigeration systems that such will. Provides nitrogen to crops per square inch ( psi ) to 110 psi weeping! Causes destruction of delicate respiratory tissue is increased to corn silage before it enters storage or anhydrous “! Ammonia weeping from a crack within the refrigeration system liquidization, super-cooled anhydrous ammonia can a. As anhydrous ammonia ( NH3 ) purge units ) into the system, causing the system components %! Ammonia or ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH approximately 15 % to 28 % by volume newer method, called one. Routinely inspect for corrosion of the receiving and storage vessel as part of a mechanical integrity program a. Implement written procedures to manage changes to equipment, procedures, and damaging to high. Is corrosive to tissues upon contact air and will rise in dry air meat,,! Temperature is only one soil condition that farmers should consider when applying ammonia., cold stores and various food processing facilities ( e.g that contributes to human toxicity soil causes freeze... To grow and yield a good crop form ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH oxygen water... The fire hazard from ammonia is essential to ensure proper function of the refrigeration system brass and... Is 90 percent full at 68°F and damaging to tissue high in moisture content when it hits the skin eyes. High concentrations ( 16 how cold is anhydrous ammonia 25 percent by weight in air water ” ) ammonia and wheat growers plan! Liquid under pressure gas ammonia expand and contract with changes in pressure and temperature!

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