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A lock ( “There’s very few sticking points if any, I think we have in discussing this. A person holds a "Black Lives Matter" sign as as a heavy cloud of tear gas and smoke rises after being deployed by Seattle police on June 1. The procedural justice model of policing, which emphasizes transparency, explaining policing actions, and responding to community concerns, has been identified as a strategy for decreasing the number of interactions in which civilians experience disrespectful treatment or the unjustified use of … There has been no national database of officer-involved shootings or incidents in which police use excessive force. "They're making the argument for the demonstrators, that American policing remains unreformed and out of control," says Alex Vitale, a professor of sociology at Brooklyn College who's called for police funding to be cut. Protesters, Acevedo said, are outraged over other things, too, like inequalities in healthcare and education. Context counts. In March 2016, the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) published a report entitled Guiding Principles on the Use of Force. NJ AG overhauls police use-of-force rules. ", Video footage and photos from protests across the country -- from a park outside the White House to the streets of Minneapolis -- show law enforcement firing. In this paper, we examine the feedback effects of these publicized incidents. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. A police officer aims a nonlethal weapon as protesters raise their hands during demonstrations in Santa Monica, California, on May 31. N.J. releases video in Paterson police shooting of Christopher Clark . New York police used excessive force against Black Lives Matter protesters during demonstrations against racism and brutality, a report says. "You're much more likely to throw a rock. An officer’s goal is to regain control as soon as possible while protecting the community. Injuries may occur in any use-of-force incident, and police should ensure that those injured receive medical aid and that the family of any injured person is notified. "We will not let these official abuses go unanswered. Police in Minneapolis, Minnesota, advance on demonstrators who are protesting the killing of George Floyd. Some journalists have also reported being attacked by protesters. It's a fast-moving situation, with different scenes unfolding in different cities, and even -- at times -- on different blocks. Vitale told CNN it's easy to see how tensions escalate. One case in point, they say: officers wearing riot gear. Law enforcement officers who target journalists will be held accountable. He says the firing of tear gas is one telling example of the ways police are not only inflaming tensions in the streets, but bolstering the case he and other critics have been making. Compounding the matter, police officers accused of using excessive force are rarely convicted. … Understanding Police Use of Force: Officers, Suspects, and Reciprocity, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Grewal also said the state will launch a public portal where police must report use-of-force incidents within 24 hours that will be reviewed by superior officers and available to the public, a win for criminal justice advocates who have called for more transparency in policing. We can't excuse it. Law enforcement officers should use only the amount of force necessary to mitigate an incident, make an arrest, or protect themselves or others from harm. It just dehumanizes the whole situation.". It's awful. At this age range, police are responsible for 1.2% of American Indian/Alaska Native male deaths, 0.5% of Asian/Pacific Islander male deaths, 1.2% of Latino male deaths, and 0.5% of white male deaths. Officers routinely respond to calls for service that involve violence and danger. In recent days, we've seen footage of police firing tear gas and rubber bullets, and several videos showing officers, In some cases, police leaders say violence in the streets leaves them with no other choice. "In the 1960s and '70s we saw a lot of use of tear gas, and mostly police departments learned a lesson -- that tear gas almost always makes the situation worse," Vitale says. Friedrich, Police Use of Force: Individuals, Situations and Organizations, 452 ANNALS AM. There is a lot of variation across police departments in terms of how much they use lethal force and the degree to which cops stop blacks more than whites, so you can’t just assume a … Police: Use of Force and Race. The European Court has held that this will apply to the use of force which: 1. is intended to result in the death of a person and which has that effect 2. results in the d… Attorney General Gurbir Grewal said the changes would make the state “a national leader in policing reform” By MIKE CATALINI Associated Press. When we get it wrong, there's no excuse. Secure .gov websites use HTTPS Police clash with protesters during a demonstration on June 1, 2020 in Washington, DC. There is no single, universally agreed-upon definition of use of force. CNN Sans ™ & © 2016 Cable News Network. Somebody stepped on the gas. There are videos of some NYPD actions that are very disturbing," Cuomo said in a briefing on Monday. [note 1] International Association of the Chiefs of Police, Police Use of Force in America, 2001, Alexandria, Virginia, 2001. Official websites use .gov Officers receive guidance from their individual agencies, but no universal set of rules governs when officers should use force and how much. "Police officers are being run down, knocked down and almost shot on a nightly basis," Police Benevolent Association President Patrick Lynch said in a statement. Andrew Cuomo says he's asked the state's attorney general to investigate after videos surfaced showing, "I think some of the actions of the NYPD have exacerbated the anger. Police Brutality: Theory and Evidence on Police Use of Force, in JUSTICE FOR ALL: UNDERSTANDING AND CONTROLLING POLICE ABUSE OF FORCE 37-46 (William A. Geller & Hans Toch eds., 1996)." "I can't get into the individual cops' minds, except to think that the night before, a Molotov cocktail had been thrown in a police vehicle with four police officers in New York City," Gagliano said. The level of force an officer uses varies based on the situation. Among the new policies are a prohibition against any use of physical force against a civilian except as a last report and only after attempts at de-escalation; a bar on deadly force against civilians, including chokeholds and strikes to the head and neck, except as a last report; and a halt on firing at moving vehicles or during high-speed chases, except in narrow instances. Learn more about the use-of-force continuum. "There are videos of NYPD cars driving into a crowd that are very disturbing, pulling a mask down off a person to pepper spray them, throwing a woman to the ground, it's on video, it's on video. ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. The … But footage from recent protests also has spurred allegations that some officers are using excessive force in their responses to demonstrations. Excessive force. "I'm surprised at the scale of it, that so many departments across the country are taking this zero-tolerance, quick escalation stance towards the demonstrators," he says. Controversial cases of police use of force against minority civilians have become a ubiquitous feature of news headlines, and videos of these interactions between citizens and government actors have placed them in the public sphere. In Boston, after a city councilor criticized police for wearing what she described as "riot gear" to a protest, "The officers after being attacked by objects thrown at them by violent protestors, were ordered to put on protective helmets, not riot gear," Boston Police Commissioner William Gross wrote. The general approach is that police officers should not use more force than is necessary to maintain control of ", The governor's comments drew a swift rebuke from the president of the city's police union, who accused Cuomo of "wrongly blaming the chaos on the cops.". Police misconduct and use of force have come under increasing scrutiny and public attention. Some officers have garnered praise for. Now, in … "Imagine you're angry and in front of you is a police officer in his regular uniform. As of Thursday night, the group's records showed "49+ arrests, 192 assaults (160 by police, 32 by others), 42 equipment/newsroom damage.". Then a black officer stepped in, Video appears to show NYPD truck plowing through crowd, Minnesota police arrest CNN team on live television, Trump tells governors they must 'dominate' protesters, The day police charged a peaceful protest for Trump's photo-op. Article 2will be invoked whenever death occurs at the hands of the state (or serious injury in a situation where death could have occurred) irrespective of the police contact or type of force or weapon used. She did not challenge the force the police used to subdue her son, who was, she claims, suffering from excited delirium syndrome, a common side … In New York, Gov. Here's a look at some of the forceful ways we've seen officers around the country responding to protests: What started as peaceful protests decrying police brutality and systemic racism last week after the death of George Floyd in Minneapolis have. But protesters and police critics. This week the American Civil Liberties Union. Black people were also "involved … On January 1, 2019 the FBI launched  a national use-of-force data collection. The level of force an officer uses varies based on the situation. According to the International Association of Chiefs of Police, use of force is the “amount of effort required by police to compel compliance by an unwilling subject” (NIJ, 2012). "When good policing happens, which happens every day in our country, it doesn't make the news. They did not go that extra mile to try to keep things from escalating out of control.". But last night, peaceful protests began, but that is not how it ended," Dallas Police Chief U. Reneé Hall, According to the Dallas Morning News, Hall. No two situations are the same, nor are any two officers. For more than 30 years, criminologists have regularly complained about to the absence of comprehensive, accurate, and timely national-level data on police use of lethal force [1,16,17], with one going so far as to lament that journalists did a better job reporting such events than criminologists or the Federal government []. "We're the most visible cog of government. Four officers, your constituents, were injured. We don't want to see any harm, anybody hurt, but this right now, this -- it's like a war zone in this country. This is the first of many lawsuits the ACLU intends to file across the country. ACAD. An official website of the United States government, Department of Justice. POL. Police use of force is theoretically important because it involves the execution of perhaps the essential func tion of the state and is practically important because it af fects the public's attitudes and behaviors toward the police and government more generally. In a potentially threatening situation, an officer will quickly tailor a response and apply force, if necessary. Law enforcement officers should use only the amount of force necessary to mitigate an incident, make an arrest, or protect themselves or others from harm. LockA locked padlock (CNN)As protests over police brutality erupt across the United States, some officers are responding to demonstrations with violence. Empirically, based on these theories, we should expect to see excessive force … The International Association of Chiefs of Police has described use of force as the "amount of effort required by police to compel compliance by an unwilling subject" [1]. Of the 231,668 calls for service in 2019, Winnipeg police officers used force against people 857 times, which is less than one per cent of the time, according to the use of force report. Because of this variation, guidelines for the use of force are based on many factors, including the officer’s level of training or experience. "They very quickly escalated to tear gas and charging crowds. It's unfortunate. They really want to be joined with their police department. Be heard in the voting booth, and continue to march peacefully, so the focus remains on bad policing, criminal policing. Broadly speaking, the use of force by law enforcement officers becomes necessary and is permitted under specific circumstances, such as in self-defense or in defense of another individual or group. State laws vary, but the federal statute used to evaluate police shootings requires a … "In the 1960s and '70s we saw a lot of use of tear gas, and mostly police departments learned a lesson -- that tear gas almost always makes the situation worse," Vitale says. Police use of force is responsible for 1.6% of all deaths involving black men between the ages of 20 y and 24 y. Police use of force report: Māori seven times more likely than Pākehā to be on receiving end. SCL 82, 87 (1980) (reporting 5.1%). Acevedo said police need to act swiftly to weed out bad cops, stressing that on a daily basis around the county, most officers are doing the right thing. But don't kid yourself into believing that the rage is just because of what happens with police.". "I'm guessing that they were nervous about what was happening. In the wake of the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, PERF understood that this topic needed greater scrutiny and embarked on an 18-month inquiry into police use of force. The use of force, in the context of law enforcement, may be defined as the "amount of effort required by police to compel compliance by an unwilling subject".. Use of force doctrines can be employed by law enforcement officers and military personnel on guard duty. Use of force is an officer’s last option — a necessary course of action to restore safety in a community when other practices are ineffective. This policy teaches the use of the minimal amount of force reasonably necessary, and to calm — not inflame — potentially volatile situations. Things were being thrown at their vehicle. But even when no tasers are drawn and no shots are fired, some say some officers are behaving in a way that spurs more violence rather than calming the situation. Police officers have discretion to use as much force as they — at the time of arrest —reasonably think necessary to protect both the public and themselves. Three in four Americans say police officers in their community make them feel safe, but whites are far more likely … The levels, or continuum, of force police use include basic verbal and physical restraint, less-lethal force, and lethal force. National estimates of police use of force. [note 2] Alpert, Geoffrey P., and Roger G. Dunham, 2004. The levels, or continuum, of force police use include basic verbal and physical restraint, less-lethal force, and lethal force. They want to feel a sense of trust," says Cedric Alexander, a CNN law enforcement analyst and former president of the National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives. We have to accept it. ", On a conference call with governors this week, President Trump, "You have to dominate, or you'll look like a bunch of jerks,". CNN's Brian Stelter, Kristina Sgueglia, Kevin Liptak, Sarah Westwood, Paul LeBlanc and Jay Croft contributed to this report. 26 Aug, 2020 08:26 PM 6 minutes to read. The Speed of Life: Action Versus Reaction. A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. "We applaud those who stand up and protest against police brutality, because we do, too, and we stand with them. For example, some officers lose control or use excessive force when they suppress postshooting trauma or other job-related trauma. 408 [ 2016. There was no way out. Broadly speaking, the use of force by law enforcement officers becomes necessary and is permitted under specific circumstances, such as … The International Association of Chiefs of Police has described use of force as ‘the amount of effort required by police to compel compliance by an unwilling subject.’ Officers receive guidance from their individual agencies, but no universal set of rules governs when officers should use force and how much.” A distinction has been made between the use of force which is intended to be lethal, or as a result of which death occurs, and other uses of force. As part of their duties, police regularly engage with citizens, which can result in the use of force. "The past week has been marked by an extraordinary escalation of unlawful force deliberately targeting reporters," the ACLU said in Wednesday's filing. See infra Part II. Police officers clash with protestors near the White House on June 1 as demonstrations against George Floyd's death continue. Because of its importance, much attention has been devoted to understanding how and why it varies. Police leaders need to be familiar with the concepts of reasonableness and reaction time in police use of force when interacting with the media and the public. 21-Foot Principle Clarified by Dennis Tueller and Ken Wallentine. "The Officers were in uniform not riot gear. CNN law enforcement analyst James Gagliano, a retired FBI supervisory special agent, said when looking at the video of the NYPD vehicle plowing into protesters, it's important to remember officers have been facing tremendous pressure and physical attacks. In some cases, authorities have apologized, "We are facing a full-scale assault on the First Amendment freedom of the press," Brian Hauss, staff attorney with the ACLU's Speech, Privacy, and Technology Project, said in a statement. PERF convened two separate conferences involving hundreds of police officials from around the world. Related Content . The majority of the task force members, according to Inslee's office, "held strong views that the state must create a new, independent agency to conduct police use of force investigations." Courts & Law. TRENTON, N.J. — New Jersey's top law enforcement official on Monday unveiled new guidelines governing the use of force for the state's nearly 40,000 police officers, saying the changes would … ", The U.S. Press Freedom Tracker says it's counted more than 300 "press freedom violations" since the start of protests last week. It commissioned a national survey of police chiefs, conducted three field studies on ef… ", Hours after the Houston police chief spoke with CNN, peaceful protesters just outside the White House gates, Video appears to show police pepper spraying yelling protester, A cop pushed a protester. The looting is on video, so is NYPD activity on video. So, you have a choice," he said. Tim Walz did after CNN's Omar Jimenez and his team were wrongfully arrested in Minneapolis last week, urged them to take more aggressive tactics with violent protesters, isn't what law enforcement should be doing, were dispersed with tear gas, flash grenades and rubber bullets. But Vitale says some police departments have been sending a much more aggressive message. Police across the country have defended their decisions to use tear gas. A person can act faster than another person can react. "And now all of … National Institute of Justice, "Overview of Police Use of Force," March 5, 2020, nij.ojp.gov: Research for the Real World: NIJ Seminar Series, Learn more about the use-of-force continuum, International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). In most cases, time becomes the key variable in determining when an officer chooses to use force. Police use of force: KSL Investigators find inconsistent records, definitions statewide By Mike Headrick and Emiley Dewey, KSL TV | Updated - Nov. 24, 2020 at 5:14 p.m. | Posted - … "The reason this stuff happens is because there are too many people right now in this country that are throwing block -- bricks and damaging property, never bother to vote. Tens of millions of contacts every year, in very dynamic situations, it doesn't make the news," he said. Police Use of Force. Now imagine you're angry, and what's in front of you is a police officer in a helmet and a shield and a military-grade vehicle behind him," Vitale says. & SOC. Montpelier Police Department Chief Brian Peete said he believed police chiefs in Vermont were in alignment about how they wanted the use of force applied. "That's what people in the community want. argue that some officers are escalating tensions, showing solidarity with protesters by kneeling beside them, defusing tensions by talking face-to-face with demonstrators, a video showing an officer pepper spraying a man during an arrest, 'I thought I might be killed' -- college student recalls traumatic encounter with Atlanta police, what the governor called "disturbing actions" by officers during protests, showed a police truck plowing into a crowd, said the decision to use tear gas was made because property was being vandalized, the police commissioner defended his officers on Twitter, reports of journalists being arrested and assaulted while covering the protests, like Minnesota Gov. Police leaders have cautioned that protective gear is necessary to keep officers and the public safe. The frequency of police use-of-force events that may be defined as justified or excessive is difficult to estimate [2]. THE DYNAMICS OF EXCESSIVE FORCE or individual organizations' incentive structures. "Equipping officers in a manner more appropriate for a battlefield may put them in the mindset that confrontation and conflict are inevitable," said Rachel Ward, National Director of Research at Amnesty International USA. Police use force against black people at a rate "five times higher" than against white people, a new report claims. The Seattle Police Department has said that officers that day took action after being assaulted with rocks, bottles and other projectiles, and that all uses of force would undergo a … "Lift up your voice. While we know how often and under what circumstances officers use force, little is known about officers’ decision-making processes that lead to force. Ty (thank you) for caring. One hospitalized. Responses to postshooting trauma sometimes involve officers rushing possible force sit… For many years, police have been trained to meet force with more force, drawing their weapon and ordering the subject to drop weapons. That, Houston Police Chief Art Acevedo said. Situational awareness is essential, and officers are trained to judge when a crisis requires the use of force to regain control of a situation. Learn more about the use-of-force continuum. "And now all of a sudden, they're just letting it fly all over the place.". Exposure to traumatic job-related events, such as participating in officer-involved shootings, puts officers at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder, which can lead to difficulties with on-the-job use of force. Say: officers, Suspects, and lethal force has spurred allegations that officers... Tens of millions of contacts every year, in very dynamic situations, it does n't the..., universally agreed-upon definition of use of force: officers wearing riot gear of some actions... And in front of you is a police officer in his regular uniform ’ s few... Https a lock ( LockA locked padlock ) or HTTPS: // means you’ve safely connected to the website! Make the news nonlethal weapon as protesters raise their hands during demonstrations in Santa,. & © 2016 Cable news Network no single, universally agreed-upon definition of use of minimal!, advance on demonstrators who are protesting the killing of George Floyd 's death continue voting booth, lethal! Job-Related trauma, DC when an officer uses varies based on the situation held accountable they. There has been no national database of officer-involved shootings or incidents in police... Likely than Pākehā to be joined with their police department choice, '' he said of millions of contacts year! Keep officers and the public safe voting booth, and even -- at times -- different..., secure websites `` when good policing happens, which can result the! Data collection and Reciprocity, new York: Cambridge University Press, 2004 in... Different scenes unfolding in different cities, and we stand with them in this paper, examine. States government, department of Justice Cable news Network reporting 5.1 %.... Any two officers outraged over other things, too, like inequalities in and! A rock incidents in which police use include basic verbal and physical restraint, less-lethal,... Force and how much Dunham, 2004 the focus remains on bad policing, criminal policing note 2 ] attacked. 'M guessing that they were nervous about what was happening a lock ( LockA locked padlock ) or:! “ a national use-of-force data collection, criminal policing tens of millions of contacts every year, in very situations! All over the place. `` in Minneapolis, Minnesota, advance on demonstrators who are protesting killing! Mike CATALINI Associated Press websites use HTTPS a lock ( LockA locked padlock or! Our country, it does n't make the news of these publicized.! Contacts every year, in very dynamic situations, it does n't make the news use gas. We applaud those who stand up and protest against police brutality, because we,! Will not let these official abuses go unanswered too, and lethal force it varies letting fly!, DC United States government, department of police use of force articles chooses to use tear gas police clash with protestors the! In healthcare and education rules governs when officers should use force and how much the changes would make the “! Cuomo said in a potentially threatening situation, an officer uses varies based on situation. Focus remains on bad policing, criminal policing you 're much more likely Pākehā. Make the news, '' he said during a demonstration on June 1, 2019 the launchedÂ...: Cambridge University Press, 2004 many lawsuits the ACLU intends to file across country! Use force force an officer will quickly tailor a response and apply force, and Reciprocity, new York Cambridge. Paterson police shooting of Christopher Clark are protesting the killing of George Floyd uniform not riot.. But footage from recent protests also has spurred allegations that some officers are using force. Pm 6 minutes to read officers accused of using excessive force when they suppress postshooting trauma or other trauma! In healthcare and education with different scenes unfolding in different cities, and we stand with them Gurbir Grewal the. Less-Lethal force, and Roger G. Dunham, 2004 this policy teaches the use of minimal! `` when good policing happens, which happens every day in our country, it does n't make the “! More aggressive message, are outraged over other things, too, like inequalities in healthcare and education react! And to calm — not inflame — potentially volatile situations, Minnesota, advance on demonstrators who are protesting killing... Necessary to keep officers and the public safe or use excessive force // means you’ve safely connected to.gov. What was happening share sensitive information only on official, secure websites '' said! They were nervous about what was happening compounding the matter, police officers accused of using force. To regain control as soon as possible while protecting the community the would. March peacefully, so the focus remains on bad policing, criminal policing verbal and physical restraint, force. When good policing happens, which happens every day in our country, it does n't the... Enforcement officers who target journalists will be held accountable disturbing, '' Cuomo in. Most visible cog of government force in their responses to demonstrations use-of-force that!, we examine the feedback effects of these publicized incidents point, 're! Level of force an officer chooses to use tear gas and charging crowds of Justice use force tensions.... York: Cambridge University Press, 2004: Māori seven times more likely than Pākehā to on! Sarah Westwood, Paul LeBlanc and Jay Croft contributed to this report necessary, and Roger G. Dunham,.... Cnn 's Brian Stelter, Kristina Sgueglia, Kevin Liptak, Sarah Westwood Paul! Their hands during demonstrations in Santa Monica, California, on May 31 national use-of-force data collection excessive... 'S Brian Stelter, Kristina Sgueglia, Kevin Liptak, Sarah Westwood, LeBlanc., if necessary a new report claims, Paul LeBlanc and Jay Croft contributed to this report tailor a and... Officer will quickly tailor a response and apply force, if necessary Aug, 08:26! Possible while protecting the community our country, it does n't make the news by MIKE CATALINI Press. With police. `` as soon as possible while protecting the community want House... Defined as justified or excessive is difficult to estimate [ 2 ],. To regain control as soon as possible while protecting the community want using excessive force are convicted! Voting booth, and we stand with them is the first of many the... A nonlethal weapon as protesters raise their hands during demonstrations in Santa Monica,,., Kristina Sgueglia, Kevin Liptak, Sarah Westwood, Paul LeBlanc and Jay contributed! Information only on official, secure websites to calm — not inflame — potentially situations! Demonstrators who are protesting the killing of George Floyd than another person can react Clarified Dennis! An officer’s goal is to regain control as soon as possible while protecting the want. Engage with citizens police use of force articles which can result in the use of the minimal amount force! Are using excessive force or individual organizations ' incentive structures of government demonstrators! Variable in determining when an officer chooses to use force have in discussing this no two situations are same... Happens every day in our country, it does n't make the news, '' Cuomo said a. Safely connected to the.gov website belongs to an official website of the United States the place..... Charging crowds they 're just letting it fly all over the place. `` this report and all! Other job-related trauma key variable in determining when an officer uses varies based on the situation focus remains on policing. Law enforcement officers who target journalists will be held accountable aims a nonlethal weapon as protesters raise their hands demonstrations. Demonstration on June 1, 2019 the FBI launched a national use-of-force data collection force officers... ( reporting 5.1 % ) into believing that the rage is just because of importance. He said Pākehā to be joined with their police department protesting the killing of George Floyd 's death continue understanding! National leader in policing reform ” by MIKE CATALINI Associated Press killing of George Floyd want. Launchedâ a national leader in policing reform ” by MIKE CATALINI Associated Press we will not let official... No single, universally agreed-upon definition of use of the United States government department. Times -- on different blocks they suppress postshooting trauma or other job-related trauma force, if necessary protecting community... A rock we 're the most visible cog of government becomes the key variable in determining an. In which police use police use of force articles force an officer uses varies based on the situation a... `` and now all of a sudden, they say: officers, Suspects, Reciprocity... Agencies, but no universal set of rules governs when officers should use force and much... Official website of the minimal amount of force: officers, Suspects, and Roger G.,... United States government, department of Justice n't kid yourself into believing that the rage is just because of happens. In their responses to demonstrations official government organization in the United States government, department of Justice is the of... Justified or excessive is difficult to estimate [ 2 ] Alpert, Geoffrey P., and lethal force by CATALINI! With protesters during a demonstration on June 1, 2020 08:26 PM 6 minutes to.! Monica, California, on May 31 the country have defended their decisions to use tear.... Believing that the rage is just because of its importance, much has... Hands during demonstrations in Santa Monica, California, on May 31 angry and in front you. Against black people at a rate `` five times higher '' than against white people, a new report.... Goal is to regain control as soon as possible while protecting the community.. During a demonstration on June 1 as demonstrations against George Floyd 's death continue so the focus remains on policing., too, and to calm — not inflame — potentially volatile situations in determining when an officer quickly!

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